Dust harm to the human body The harm of dust to the hum […]
Dust harm to the human body
The harm of dust to the human body can cause different lesions according to its physical and chemical properties and the amount of human body entering. Such as respiratory system diseases, local effects, poisoning effects.
Occupational respiratory diseases have the following four manifestations:
Pneumoconiosis refers to a disease characterized by fibrosis of lung tissue caused by inhalation of productive dust during the production process. Different degrees of hazard due to differences in the quality and quantity of inhaled dust. There are many types of pneumoconiosis, of which 12 are classified as occupational diseases. They are: silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, graphite pneumoconiosis, carbon black pneumoconiosis, asbestosis lung, talc lung, cement lung, mica lung, potter's pneumoconiosis, aluminum pneumoconiosis, electric welding. Pneumoconiosis, castor pneumoconiosis.
2. Dust depression
Some metals (iron, bismuth, tin, etc.) can be reacted with foreign matter in the lung tissue after continuous inhalation, and continue to be slightly fibrotic, but the damage to the human body is small. After the dust operation, the lesion can gradually disappear.
3. Pulmonary lesions caused by organic dust
Different organic dusts have different biological effects, such as bronchial asthma, cotton dust, occupational allergic pneumonia, and mixed pneumoconiosis.
4. Respiratory tumors
The local action of dust means that dust acts on the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract to cause atrophic lesions; in addition, it can form pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, etc.; the skin can form acne, folliculitis, pyoderma, etc.; metal and abrasive dust can be Causes corneal damage, resulting in corneal sensation and corneal opacity; asphalt smoke can cause photo-sensing dermatitis under sunlight. The poisoning effect of dust refers to the poisoning caused by the inhalation of toxic dust such as lead, arsenic and manganese.
For the hazard of dust, the following technical measures can be used in the production process to prevent dust:
1. Technological innovation
Reforming process equipment and process operation methods and adopting new technologies are technical measures to completely eliminate dust pollution and do a good job of dust prevention. In the process reform, the root cause of the dust-free hazard in the production process should be the first, followed by the measures to eliminate or reduce the damage through the treatment after the dust is generated.
2. Wet dustproof
This is a simple, economical and effective dust prevention measure. Dust absorbs, agglomerates and gains weight when it meets water. This can greatly reduce the generation and spread of dust and improve the air quality of the working environment.
3. Closed dust source
The effective sealing of the dust source is an effective technical measure to prevent dust from escaping. It is often used in conjunction with ventilation and dust removal technical measures.
4. Ventilation and dust removal
This is currently the most common and best-performing technical measure in industrial production. Ventilation and dust removal is to effectively control the dust source by means of ventilation, and the dusty gas is pumped out, purified by the dust collector and discharged into the atmosphere, so that the dust concentration in the working area meets the requirements of sanitary standards, and the exhaust gas reaches the discharge standard. Requirements.
5. Personal protection
This is an auxiliary measure. It is usually based on other technical measures to prevent dust inhalation and reduce dust on the human body through various protective equipment (such as masks, dust masks, dust masks, dustproof helmets, etc.). harm.